Trails - what it is in Russian and literature

Paths are a secret weapon of Russian

January 19 2021.

Hello, dear blog readers KtonanovenKogo.ru. Today we will tell about such a term as trails that are actively used in the literature.

Although in his everyday speech, we constantly use these techniques, without even suspecting it.

What is trails

For example, when the Golden Hands of the Father, we are afraid to buy a cat in a bag or say they were waiting for half a day, although in fact only fifteen minutes.

The trails are ...

The trails are the speed of speech, in which words or whole phrases are used in a figurative value, comparing various items and phenomena associated with them in meaning. Serves to give speech or text greater expressiveness .


The word path itself can be associated with the name of some routes in which words are lined up. It looks beautiful, but not right.

In fact, this term, like many in Russian, came to us from ancient Greece. And the word "τρόπος" is translated as " Turnover " In this case, it is meant in mind the turnover of speech.

Trophy varieties

Interestingly, there is still no single classification of the trail.

Some scientists call on to divide them with speech figures, such as epithet, hyperbole, comparison, periprase, and so on. But others insist that any turns in Russian must first be considered the paths, and even then divide them by varieties.

Topes include :

  1. Allegory
  2. Metaphor
  3. Metonymy
  4. Hyperbola
  5. Litotes
  6. Irony
  7. Perifraz
  8. Elimination
  9. Synecdoche
  10. Epithet
Turning speech

And now we will tell you about each of these speech techniques and give their examples.


Allegory is the most common view of the trail, which is in the masking of the basic meaning in other words. The most vivid example can be found in the fables when human qualities are hiding behind animal images. For example:

Donkey - allegory of nonsense, fox - tricks, hare - cowardice, lev - courage, ram - stubbornness and so on.

This technique began to use the ancient Basinist Ezop, and therefore an expression "Ezopov Language" appeared. After the Manera, hiding the human flavors took over the Russian Basinista Ivan Krylov.

Sustainable expressions are also implied under allegia. For example:

The kingdom of Aida is death, Fort Nox - inaccessibility, the Swiss bank - reliability.


The metaphor is to transfer the value of one word to another, which has similar meaning. It is almost always figuratively. For example:

Golden hands, sharp mind, wide soul and so on. These expressions we precisely use almost daily.

Also, the metaphors include cases where human qualities are attributed to non-living subjects or phenomena. For example:

Runs the stream, the blizzard howls, the weather whispers.


Metonimia is a replacement of one word to another, shorter, but exactly gives to understand what we are talking about. For example:

Watching the salute came out the whole street.

Instead of specifying a specific number of people there is a generalization, which says that there were a lot of looking.

We bought the kitchen.

It is clear that we are talking about kitchen furniture, as it is hardly someone to buy a separate room


The hyperbole is a deliberate exaggeration of some kind of quality or event. For example:

All my life dreamed, blood rivers, the mountains of corpses, a thousand apologies, a sea of ​​flowers.

In each of these and similar expressions, an exorbitant embellishment of true values, but it turns out more expressively.


As the opposite of hyperboles, wildlife, on the contrary, reduces or significantly softens the initial meaning of words and expressions. For example:

A peasant with a marigold, Makovyniki in his mouth was not, the crumb of his son.



The meaning of this word is familiar to many and means it means riding some qualities, but only without frank bullying, but rather with a slight smile. For example:

I love like a dog stick, you need as a fish umbrella, all my life dreamed about it (in a negative sense).


Periprase is stable phrases that have absolutely one meaning with the main word and are its synonyms. For example:

Camel - Desert Ship, Mars - Red Planet, Oil - Black Gold, Rome - Eternal City.


Synekdoka is the designation of something whole through small details.

Hey, beard, come here.

Appeal to the peasant.

All flags will visit us.

There are in mind different countries.


Epithe is another familiar to many terms, which denotes a bright image. For example:

Alayly dawn, Krasno Girl, bitter share, frost Cracky and so on.

Instead of imprisonment

Almost all trails are used in the literature. With their help, writers and poets make their works more bright, figuratively, and therefore memorable.

Without these "turns", any text would be boring and straightforward, and hardly caused interest among readers.

But the same can be said in our daily speech. A person who in a normal conversation or speaking in front of the audience uses various images, will be much more worse to listen.

Good luck to you! Seeing fast meetings on the pages of KtonanovenKogo.ru

Trails in literature

A speaking and listener may not even suspect the role of the paths in Russian, but actively use artistic means and perceive their dual meaning.

It is not necessary to be a writer to understand the promise of the phrase "Cat in a bag". But the question is what it is - "a cat in a bag," - a simple manner will not always answer.

Definition of trails

The trails are the main stylistic figure, designed to enrich the expressiveness of the tongue, embody the game with the reader through the figurative thinking, enhanced expression and portable values.

These include comparisons, exaggeration, epithets and other less well-known revs, such as alliteration. It is often expressed in the form of an adjective or communion, answering the question "What?" But it can also perform nouns: Beautiful spring.

The narration decorated with various attractions causes much more interest than the dry list of facts, actions, haughings of heroes, stingy descriptions of their in the lava.

And even in the most primitive conversations of the Will-Neils, you can find the desire of people to tear and compare.

It is found so everywhere along with syntactic and lexical means:

Artistic techniques in the literature Table
  • In any kind of texts, whether free stories, a scientific article or poem.
  • In a living human speech (the most common phraseologists).
  • In folk creativity. It is mainly built on inversion, grotesque, sustainable phrases and the colossal number of epithets.

Artistic techniques are quite a lot, sometimes they are difficult to distinguish each other even experienced literary waters. But common stylistic techniques are not as complicated.

Main species

COMPARISON The phrase, where they are compared (compared) several items, situations, creatures, and so on. The obligatory element is comparative words: "As", "as if", "like", "exactly" (in the meaning "as if"). "All as a crumpled bed"; "Crying like a child."
EPITHET Colorful estimated definition with an additional characteristic. "Bottomless sky"; "Greedy flame."
HYPERBOLA Intentional exaggeration in the description of phenomena. "Thousands of suns reflected on the waves"; "Sea of ​​tasks."
LITOTES Reverse hyperbole effect: intentional accuracy. "Tom Thumb"; "I am the sand in this world."
METAPHOR Transfer of the characteristics of one item to another by similarly. This is a hidden comparison in which the words "how" are not used, "as if" and so on. "Bear steps"; "Forest Shatter".
Elimination The intentional transfer of the properties of the living on non-living. "Bute clock"; "It is raining".
IRONY Allegory with a lung mock in order to create and convey a satirical image. "Where, smart, you wrapped your head? - Fox questioned at Donkey. "
INVERSION Violation of the standard ordering of words that enhances the expression of speech turnover. Most characteristic of folklore. "Stars have been rare at sunrise, and he reproaches the color."
GROTESQUE An image of the object in the comic light with contrasts and exaggerations. Most often used in folklore and when creating characters. Example: Koschey Immortal.
OXYMORON Variety of antithesis (contrast). Paradoxical phrases with contradictory meaning. "Living Dead"; "Ice fire."

All these are ways to play with consciousness, the incarnation of images that the person is used to perceive the environment, creating a special atmosphere. Images call a generalized distortion of reality Missed through the author's inner world.

Poetic stylistic figures

The list does not end only ten examples.

Artistic means in literature

All of them can be used in verses with the same success as in prose, but some turns are suitable for poetics.

In addition to the main types of artistic funds in the literature, there are poetic trails and speech figures.

Table with examples:

ALLITERATION Repeat the same consonants in order to give verse special intonation. "Evening. Seaside. Sighs wind. Music exclamation of waves. Close storm. To the shore is beating alien charm black Chelny ... "(Balmont) .
ASSONANCE Repeat the same vowels in stubborn or row. "Oh unprecedentedly beautiful sun ... Sunset is just as unpretentious! »
ANAPHORA Repeat the initial word, one row or phrase. "You and the wretched, you and abundant, you and the scored, you and the All-Figure, Mother-Rus!" (Nekrasov).
PARALLELISM The same or similar location of the wordform for the purpose of creating a single poetic image. "You, Admiral, Peace Sea. You, Admiral, die with grief. "
RHYME The rhyme is also considered a full-fledged path, although they are familiar with even children. The consonance of the last shock syllable in the string is called rhyme. It happens to be crossed, as in the example (alternate the first and third rows, the second and fourth), or parallel (the first rhyme with the second, third with the fourth). "The sun rolls into the sunset, soon a new one will be born, waves glare will be squeezed, the world will be lit by rays."

Application of phraseologism

Special attention is worth the phraseologisms - laid stable expressions characteristic of one particular language.

Trails in Russian

In our case, Russian. Along with other language units, they constitute an important lexical part in proposals, independent and have their indirect values.

They consist of two or more words that form a uniform semantic design.

Replenity depends on the context or life situation. Almost any event, behavior or character there is an expressive comment.

For example:

  • Play Zhmurki. - Something to hide, deceive.
  • Spare hands - not doing anything.
  • Cat weave - very little.
  • In the goat you will not come up - about the impregnable, not knowing the fun man.

It is difficult to understand the essence of the veiled phrase Moreover, persistent structures historically developed so much that it is impossible to remember them all.

Frameologists are devoted to whole volumes of dictionaries with interpretation and examples of consumption. This is not only a reflection of the rich culture of the people, but also a storehouse of research for linguists and just interested people.

Purpose Tropov

Someone convinced exclaimed that the only reason is the desire to decorate the spoken language, make a colorful, rich, focus on something important, shine knowledge. Yes, it is true, but only partly.

Main types of Tropov

The second question follows: where does such a desire, if humanity seeks to simplify, and not improve life? The answer is simple, although not everyone thinks about it.

As a person thinks images, he wants it or not, then to transfer thoughts easier to the same way. The use of means of expressiveness is not only a desire to improve communication, but also a direct need. Just as a child simulates its confused feelings with toys, Adult resorts to techniques with a portable value .

You can come up with how many words defining indescribable phenomena, situations. But to perceive them will be much heavier (if possible) than foggy comparisons or an animation.

The figurative thinking was laid from the early periods, perhaps from the very beginning of the human existence. In the dolite era, there were only myths - what people explained to themselves the terrible, unknown reality. They personified natural phenomena, called them and depicted in the form of clear things: gods, people, animals.

What is artistic means in literature

Such thinking is still saved so that it is easier to understand the surroundings, enter into contact with him, stop being afraid. It is enough to recall the situations when the phone broke and we sincerely asked him to earn, scolded and even offended.

Poets and writers also may not fully understand the reasons. However, they know exactly what the bolder will be more abstract, the brighter the reader will be perceived, the more he hovers it.

The same thing happens in a simple conversation: if you want to successfully convey my point of view or cause bright emotions, literary trails are the best, and most importantly - the usual option.

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