The natural zone is called a geographical area for which certain components and processes are characterized: climate, relief, soil, geochemical and hydrological conditions, as well as flora and fauna. Often in the title of the natural zone contains a factor determining the vegetation of this area. The change of natural zones is observed from the equator to the poles in the mirror reflection. The closer to the equator, the more common wet, evergreen forest. The farther to the poles, the harsh and colder conditions.
Below is a list and characteristics of all the main natural zones of the Earth:
Features of the Arctic desert
The natural zone occupies almost the entire area of Greenland and Antarctica, as well as the north of Europe and North America. Arctic deserts consist of glaciers, rocks and stony scree. For this zone, polar days and nights are characteristic: the sun is not shining for months. Up to 90% of soils covered by eternal Merzlot.
In the summer, the temperature reaches -30 degrees Celsius, and in the winter to -60 degrees Celsius and below. At the warmest months, the temperature rises to 3 degrees of heat. Specific signs of the Arctic Desert:
- Vegetation . It is almost completely absent, rarely where mosses and lichens are found.
- Animal world . Sudden, presented creatures with a large layer of fur and fat: walruses, imperial penguins, tales, seals, sands.
Gradually, cold deserts pass into the tundra zones, which is particularly vividly noticeable in the north of Russia and in Canada.
The tundras occupy the north of North America, part of Eurasia in the zone of Russia, and in the southern hemisphere this natural zone is almost absent. Among other features of the zone allocate:
- Vegetation . Bright representatives of flora tundra are mosses and lichens, but as dwarf trees appear in the forest area.
- Animal world . Sands, wolves, hare, as well as northern deer live in the tundra.
- Temperature . Winter harshs, dominated frosts up to -30 degrees Celsius, and in the summer the temperature rises to 10 degrees of heat. Winter in Tundra lasts most of the year - up to 9 months.
Atmospheric precipitates are small here - up to 400 mm, however, there is a bright contrast of the evaporation of moisture, which is dominated by the swamps and small lakes.
Taiga is one of the wealth of countries such as Russia, Canada, as well as Scandinavia states. In winter, the taiga is cold, and in the summer is not too hot. Most here is coniferous trees.
There are also deciduous rocks: poplar, birch. Per year drops to 1000 mm of precipitation. Spring and autumn are weakly expressed. In the summer, the temperature rises to +30 degrees Celsius, but it felt weakly.
There are many animals in the taiga, including predators and herbivores, such as proteins or rabbits, as well as valuable animals in the form of minority, mink, cunits. Parquers meet more in those regions where there are deciduous trees.
Stepes and Lesson Zone
The distinctive features of this zone include:
- Location . Large areas of Asia, partly Europe, as well as South and North America.
- Precipitation . Up to 500 mm per year.
- Features of vegetation . Huge territories with low herbal vegetation.
- Temperature . Up to -16 in winter and +24 in the summer.
- Flora and fauna . Wormwood prevails in the north, Kickl, cereals, closer to the south of forest-steppe vegetation. Not only small animals like heroes live in the steppes, but sometimes even moose.
In Russia, a lot of steppes in Khakassia and Altai.
The natural zone prevails in a moderate climate. The average precipitation per year here reaches an indicator of 1000 mm. The climate is mild, and the soils have a high fertility. Located mixed forests:
- Caucasus, European and Siberian Plains;
- in the Carpathians and South Scandinavia;
- in California, as well as in the zone of the Great Lakes;
- Partially found in New Zealand and in the southern part of South America.
The weather in summer is moderate, up to 25 heat, and in winter - to -16. There are many trees: limes, spruce, maples, beech and birch, oaks. Inhabit the widespread forests of moose, roeli, hares, there are lyry and hundreds of bird species.
Equatorial and tropical forests
The natural zone is located strictly along the equator line, meets in the Amazon Valley, in Africa, as well as in the zone below India, including all the islands to Australia. It is very humid here - up to 7000 mm of precipitation per year, and the temperature rarely falls below 24 degrees of heat.
In wet forests, the colossal number of animals and birds lives, amazing trees, flowers and other plants are growing - up to 2/3 flora and fauna planets are presented here. Several forest vegetation tiers are distinguished: high lianas and bamboo, palm trees, shrubs and low herbs, fern.
Diverse the world of monkeys. Hippo, leopards, jaguars, tigers, many exotic birds, reptiles and amphibians are also found.
Parking and savanna
In winter, a dry climate prevails in savannas, and in the summer it rains (up to 1000 mm). The temperature ranges from 20 to 30 degrees of heat, in the hot regions reaches 35-40 degrees.
Savanns are located in Africa, Indochita, Australia, Yua. Grass, cereals, semi-staples, baobabs, eucalyptus and palm trees grow in them. In Africa, such animals are characteristic as: lions, giraffes, ostriches, zebras. But in Australia, the fauna is distinguished by the presence of unique sampling mammals, such as Kangaroo, Koala, etc.
Desert and semi-deserts
Desert, despite the external lifeless, occupy up to 1/5 of the Sushi space. They are located mainly in South America, partly in Eurasia, on Australian mainland, a little in Africa. Atakama is the only desert in the world without precipitation - is in Chile.
Rain rare, about 50 mm per year, in some regions they do not go over the years. Temperature may vary from 30 to 60 degrees of heat. The deserts located in the zone from China to the Caspiani are distinguished by temperature fluctuations - from 20 heat in summer to -50 in winter.
The vegetation in them is almost absent - rarely where lichens and spines are found. Herbs and cereals grow in semi-deserts. They live in them: camels, all sorts of reptiles, as well as small rodents of type of tushchikov.
Located in the subequatorial zone: Sri Lanka, Indochina, North of Australia, the tropics of Africa and America. In the rainy season drops to 2,000mm precipitation, then the season is replaced by an unbearable drought in the winter season. Trees during this period are able to reset the leaves.
Temperature in the summer ranges from 20 to 24 degrees Celsius, often rises above. Among the vegetation: oaks, nuts, palm trees, bamboo, places there are pines and cedar.
Tighted evergreen forests
For brightest forests, it is characteristic:
- Location . Australia, West North America, Chile, South and Northern Belt of Africa, Mediterranean.
- Temperature . Summer is hot and dry - about 25 degrees of heat, and in the winter cool - from 8 to 16 degrees.
- Precipitation . Per year drops to 700 mm. Also present fertile soils.
- Flora . Pines, eucalyptus, oaks, tropical jungle.
- Fauna . Chameleon, lizards, hyenas, dickerages, goats, wolves, monkeys, koalas, snakes. Tighted forests are inclined to "take off" the peculiarities of the plant and animal world of neighboring ecosystems.
Natural areas of the world are located strictly relative to poles and equator. Flora and fauna of these belts is significantly different. Most of the types of animals, birds and plants characteristic of one belt are not found in the other.
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Natural zone - The territory, which is determined by monotonous climatic conditions, the characteristics of the soil, vegetation and the animal world.
Features of natural zones depend on the amount of heat, light and moisture they receive. In each natural zone, certain plants grow and live their animals.
The names of natural zones correspond to the name of the prevailing vegetation in this zone.
In the direction of the north to south, several main natural zones are replaced in Russia:
- Arctic deserts;
- Mixed forests and broadf forests;
Nature in natural zones varies gradually, so there is intermediate natural zones between the mains: Forestandra, forest-steppe, semi-desert.
The main reason for the change of natural zones is that the sun heats up different parts of the earth's surface in different ways. In the north of Russia, the sun rays fall on the ground under the high inclination, they slide over the surface and poorly heated. In the south of Russia, on the contrary, the rays fall to the ground shepherd and give more heat.
The change of natural zones from the north to the south is well traced on the plains. In the mountains, nature varies with a height - High-rise explanancy .
What is a natural zone? Natural zone - The physico-geographical area is part of the geographical shell of the Earth and the geographical belt, has the characteristic components of its natural components and processes. What are the natural zones?
- Arctic (Antarctic) desert.
- Fierotundra and Tundra.
- Taiga, mixed, broadf forests, tropical forests.
- Forest and steppe.
- Deserts and semi-deserts.
Arctic and Antarctic Deserts - Such deserts occupy about 5 million square kilometers (the greatest places of Greenland, Antarctica, the northern parts of Eurasia North America), are mainly consisting of small rocks or rocky screams, as well as glaciers. The characteristic feature of the polar desert is the lack of sunlight for a long period of time, about 10 months. Most of the soil are covered by constant morbetas. The average temperature value that happens in these zones is up to -30 degrees for Celsius, in winter -60 degrees, during the warm seasons, the temperature is +3 degrees as much as possible. Such deserts are practically deprived of vegetation. An animals in the Arctic inhabit white bears, walruses, seals, sands, seals. In Alaska, in Canada and Russia, the Arctic deserts are already gradually moving to the tundra.
Forestandra and Tundra - The largest terrain of Tundra and Forestandra are located in the north of North America as well as Eurasia (mainly Russia and Canada) mainly, such areas are located in the subarctic climatic belt. In the southern hemisphere of our planet, the tundra and forest tundra are practically absent. Vegetation is very low, the most common mosses and lichens. There is a large number of trees in Tundra, such as a Siberian larch, dwarf birch, polar will. Among animals: deer, wolves, a large number of Zaitsev, Pots. The average temperature during the warm seasons of the year is +5 +10 degrees, the average temperature is -30 degrees. In Tundra, winter can last up to 9 months. In Foreturdra, the average temperature is +10 +15 degrees. In winter from -10 to -45 degrees. In Tundra and Forestandra, a very large number of lakes, due to the big humidity, as well as a large amount of swamps.
Taiga, Mixed, Wide Forests, Tropical Forests - These zones are characteristic mild climate as well as fertile soils. It is formed in moderate belts with an average precipitation. Usually are located in a moderate belt of Russia, Canada, Scandinavia. Characterized cold winter and pretty warm summer. From vegetation, a large number of coniferous trees: pine, fir, larch, spruce. Taiga, became famous through his dark boreal forests. There is also a large number of deciduous trees: birch, poplar, aspen. The main time of the year in the taiga and large, tropical forests, is winter and summer. Autumn and spring are so short that they will not even notice that they exist. In the taiga is either very cold or very hot. It happens that the temperature exceeds +30 degrees for Celsius, mostly warm and rainy. In winter, there are frosts and up to -50 degrees. A very large number of wild animals: brown bear, wolf, fox, wolverine, ermine, sable, there are deer, moose, roe. But usually, they live in the terrain where a very large number of deciduous trees.
Forest-steppe and steppe - These are areas of the earth's part that do not have forests, there are quite extensive territories in Eurasia, North America and in subtropical belts of South America. Very low amount of precipitation. The forest-steppe zone passes in the north between the steppes and forests in the north, and, precisely, from the steppes, the transition to semi-deserts is formed and the desert begin already. In the forest-steppes, just the opposite, there is a rather wet climate (up to 600 mm) than in the steppe, therefore such an element like a meadow steppe is formed here. The temperature in the steppes, as well as in the forest-steppes it happens from -16 to +10 degrees in winter, +15 +30 degrees in summer. Vegetation is usually changing from the north to south, the cereals replaces the nick, and it replaces his wormwood. Susliki, Surki, Drops, steppe eagles are made of animals. Hedgehogs, squirrels, foxes, hares, courses, losi, storks, beavers are found.
Desert and semi-deserts - This is one of the biggest zones, it takes one fifth of the earth's surface. It is clear that the largest part of these areas is located in the tropics (deserts and semi-deserts): in Africa, Australia, Tropics of South America, as well as on the Arabian Peninsula in Eurasia. The most dry desert is Atakama, which is in Chile, there is almost no rain. In the largest desert of the Earth - sugar, precipitation is also very small, the temperature is up to +50 for the desert it is a very ordinary phenomenon. In winter there are freezes. In the deserts there are practically no flora. This is explained by low humidity and a very dry climate, there is a very small number of plants that can survive with such a climate. Animals are enough: tushkans, gopters, snakes, lizards, scorpions, camels.
Savannah - Such zones are in most part, in the subequatorial belt of the Earth. The climate here is diverse, it happens very dry, and it happens rather rainy. The average temperature per year, ranges from +15 to +25 degrees. The largest number of Sanwan, is located in South America, Africa, Indochita, Peninsula of the Industan, Northern Australia. Very diverse fauna, mainly herbal vegetation, a variety of trees and shrubs. From animals that inhabit the Savanov, you can select the following: elephants, cheetahs, lions, rhinos, leopards, zebras, giraffes, antelopes. A large number of birds and insects.
The word ώώνη [zoni] translated from Greek means "belt".
Belt, strip or space between any borders is called the zone.
The zone with a similar climate (that is, by a perennial weather regime), the peculiarities of the vegetable and animal world, as well as with similar soils are called a natural zone.
Natural zones of Russia
The nature of Russia is surprisingly diverse. There are several natural zones on its territory. Moving from north to south one after another is changing natural zones.
The main natural zones include:
- Arctic desert
- Mixed and wide forests,
- and subtropics.
It must be said that nature changes gradually, that is why there are intermediate between these main zones. So, between tundra and forests - Forestandra, between the steppes and deserts - semi-deserts.
The change of natural zones is due to the uneven heating of the Sun of different sections of the Earth. In the northern regions, the sun rays fall into Earth obliquely, they slide over the surface and weakly heat it.
Than south, the more sheer falling on the ground. The sun rays are falling, the stronger they heat the ground surface. This leads to a gradual change in the whole picture of nature.
The change of natural zones from the north to the south is traced on the plains. In the mountains, nature varies with a height.
Most of all the sun's rays in Russia falls into the semi-desert zone in the south, and the least in the zone of the Arctic desert in the north. In the north is always colder than in the south, since most of the sunlight slides on the surface of the Earth and practically does not heat it.
Zones with similar climatic conditions, animal world, types of vegetation and soil are depicted on map of natural zones . Thus, trace how nature changes from the north to south, you can on this map.
Arctic desert. It is cold. Around snow and ice. Translated from the Greek word "Arctic" means "Medleang". It is also called an ice zone. The area of the Arctic desert falls the least of all sun rays.
Among the animals inhabitants in the area of the Arctic desert can be called polar bears.
There are already warmer in the tundra, so dwarf birches grow there.
The word Tundra translated from Finnish means "flavored, naked elevation".
Forestandra - ate could grow in this zone.
Taiga is a coniferous forest. Translated from the Buryat language, the word "Taiga" means "a dense mountain coniferous forest."
Mixed forest - coniferous and deciduous trees grow in it. In this natural zone you can find a boar. Wide forest
Wide forest - coniferous trees do not grow in it, but trees are growing with wide leaves (deciduous).
The forest-steppe - the trees are smaller in it, and the herbs are greater.
The steppe is warm and dry, so there are mainly grass. The word steppe is an original Russian, it means "thyed place."
In the steppes you can meet groundhog.
A semi-desert - it is hot in it, a lot of sand and there are practically no plants. In the semi-desert you can find a camel.
Subtropical forests (they are subtropics) - located on the shores of the Black Sea. This is the smallest natural zone of Russia.
Another natural zone is a desert. She is not in Russia. From the ancient Greek desert is translated as "empty, solitary". It is in this natural zone that the sun is above all compared to other natural zones. With this position of the Sun on the ground, the most sunshine falls.
Change of natural zones in the mountains
In the mountains, nature varies with a height. With increasing height for each 1000 meters, the temperature decreases by 6.5 degrees.
- At an altitude of 0 - 1000 meters in the mountains, the Natural Area is a wide forest
- From 1000 to 2000 meters - mixed forest
- In the 2000 interval - 3000 meters - Taiga
- At an altitude of 3000 to 4000 meters - Tundra
- At an altitude of 4,000 to 5000 meters - snow and glaciers.
In the mountains, the replacement phenomenon of nature with a height is called High-rise explanancy .
What is natural zones
The concept of natural zones (they are also called natural living) is closely related to the geographical belt in which they are located, and a set of main distinctive characteristics.
Natural zone is part of the geographical shell of the Earth and the geographical belt, which has the characteristic components of its natural components and processes.
In the ocean, they practically do not manifest. The names of natural zones are usually associated with the prevailing type of vegetation.
The determining factor in their education is climate That is, the ratio of moisture and heat, therefore there is a certain similarity between natural zones and climatic.
Sequence of their location From the equator to the poles in the mirror image It is associated with different levels of solar energy distribution - the farther from the equator, the more.
In addition, it is characteristic of changing from the coast towards the center of the mainland - This indicates the direct effect of the proximity of the ocean, as well as the terrain of the area on the width and location of natural zones.
Signs of natural zones
In the generally accepted list, nine types of natural zones, which are discussed in detail below.
Each of them differs from other characteristic, inherent in its features. The following main signs of these zones are distinguished:
- the soil;
- geographical position;
Mostly for each zone they are their own, but there are border areas Mixed signs characteristic of neighboring zones. In general, it is possible to determine the natural zone by its climate, the composition of flora and fauna.
The natural and vegetable world characteristic of one zone is less common in others.
Types of natural zones, their features
Arctic and Antarctic Desert
The geographical position of this zone - Neighborhood of the Northern and South Poles . It takes a total of approximately 5 million square meters. In the northern hemisphere it is the territory of Greenland, the northern part of Eurasia and North America, in South - Antarctica.
The characteristic feature of this zone is The presence of polar nights From December to February, when the sun does not appear above the horizon line, as well as polar days (mainly in July), when it does not go beyond the horizon.
Most of the soil - eternal Frost And desert landscapes look harshly: glaciers, rocks and rocky scree.
The average temperature here is about -30 degrees, while in the winter months there can be -60, and in summer places a maximum of up to +3.
There is practically no vegetation, there are oars and lichen in Antarctica.
The animal world is represented by species having a thick fur and a thick fat layer. In the Arctic you can meet polar bears, seals, walrles, sands, in Antarctica - Pokornov and Imperial Penguins.
The territory of the Arctic deserts in Russia, in Alaska and in Canada, located on the North Pole, are smoothly moving into the tundra zone.
Tundrow and Forestry Zone
Zone Tundra and Forestandry is located in Subarctic climatic belt in the northern hemisphere On the territory of North America (mainly Canada) and Russia. In the southern hemisphere, this zone is almost completely absent.
Basic vegetation - Moss and lichen . Closer to the border of the tundra with Fondra, the low-spirited trees begin to appear. From coniferous breeds is a Siberian larch, from finely can be seen a polar IVI and a dwarf birch. The animal world is also not very diverse here, mainly represented by reindeers, sands, wolves and hares.
The tundra winters are sufficiently harsh, the thermometer's thermometer can fall below the -30 degree marks. For summer, the average temperature is about +10. In Feretandra, a little warmer - in winter can be -10, in summer to +14.
Atmospheric precipitates are few here, from 200 to 400 mm per year. The characteristic feature of the climate of the tundra - Insufficient evaporation of moisture and related Increased humidity . Therefore, despite the small amount of precipitation, small lakes and swamps are dominated here.
In the place where the subarctic climatic belt begins to gradually go to moderate, lie the boundaries of this zone with Taiga.
Taiga is located on a significant area of the territory - occupies most of Russia, Canada and Scandinavian countries . From the seasons, the winter and summer months are pronounced brighter. Winter in the cold taiga, from -50 to -30 degrees. Summer is mostly rainy and warm, the temperature can reach +30 degrees and above. Autumn and spring here are not lasting and expressed weaker. The amount of precipitation dropped can be from 300 mm and reach up to 1000 mm per year. Flora is represented by a large number coniferous trees - larch, fir, fir, pine. But there are also representatives of hardwood - poplar, aspen, rowan, birch.
The animal world of this zone is quite diverse. There are many predators and herbivores, which serve as food. You can meet wolves, brown bears, foxes, wolves and tricks, from mink - Mornostayev, Lasp, Cunits, Soboley and Mink. A large number of hares, rabbits, protein, mice. In zones with a predominance of hardwood, trees are found a large number of man-fate animals. In Siberia, these are different types of deer, moose and roe, in Canada - forest bison.
Steppes and forest site
For steppes and forest-steppes characteristic Almost complete lack of forest vegetation . They are located on an extensive territory in North America, in Asia, in South American subtropics, and also occupy small sections of European countries. In the northern part, closer to the forests, there are a forest-steppe zone, and on the border with semi-deserts - steppe.
In the Asian territory, the forest-steppe zone stretches the single strip from the Carpathian mountains to the Altai Territory, as well as fragmentary present in the eastern part of Eurasia. In Russia, this is mainly the territory of Khakassia and Altai.
The precipitate is insignificant here, in the steppe zone per year 250-500 mm per year, and in the forest-steppe and up to 600 mm. For winter, the temperature fluctuations from -15 degrees are characterized to +10, for the summer from +15 to +25. The closer to the south, the hotter and arid.
In the steppes grows a large number Low herbal plant plants , such as cellars, wormwood, Kickl. Among the steppe animals, rodents are more common - Surki and Susliki, from birds - steppe eagles and drofs. In the forest-steppe zone you can meet hedgehogs, hares, steppe wolves and foxes, beavers, cool, and sometimes elk. Storks are most common from birds.
Mixed and broad forest
This zone is located on the territory with moderate, soft climate . Temperature in the summer comes to +25 degrees, in winter it can fall to -15 and below. The amount of precipitation fell in mixed forests up to 700 mm per year, and in broadcine - up to 1000 mm. Local soils are distinguished High fertility .
The zone is located in the Caucasus and Carpathians, occupies the East European and West Siberian Plains. The southern part of Scandinavia, California, the Great Lakes, New Zealand and Partly South America (in the south) also applies to this area. From the trees are common here Wide breeds - You can see many oaks, beeches, birch, lip and maples. Conifers are also coniferous - predominantly pine and ate. Roomflakes live here - roar, deer, moose. You can meet boars, hares, lengthening protein, diverse rodents and birds. From predators there are wolves and foxes, also occurs Lynx.
Equatorial and tropical forests
The boundaries of the equatorial forest zone according to its name are located just norther and slightly south of the equator line . It includes the Amazon Valley, a significant part of Africa, a whole group of the Islands of the Indian Ocean (to Australia).
When describing this zone that takes predominantly lowlands , It should be noted High humidity - precipitation falls from 2000 to 7000 mm per year. The temperature regime of equatorial and tropical forests is sufficiently stable throughout the year, the thermometer column is rarely lowered below +25. The warm wet climate of this zone is grappic both for growing different vegetation itself and for the diversity of the animal world. Approximately ⅔ representatives of the flora and the fauna of our entire planet focused in it.
For vegetation here is characteristic Multi-tier : Ferns are growing in the lower tier, on average, shrubs and low herbs, in the upper - bamboo, lianas and palm trees. Many difficult areas consisting of thickets of Lian and shrubs, together forming the jungle.
Among the characteristic representatives of the animal world are a large variety of monkeys (orangutans, monkeys, chimpanzees, gorillas). Hippo, rhinos, leopards, panthers, jaguars, tigers, otpop, crocodiles, snakes are found. Many exotic birds, such as tucanis and hummingbirds. For the fauna of South America, anaconda and jaguars are characterized.
Petrol and Savannah
This amazing natural education is mostly located in Subscance and partly in tropical climatic belts Africa, South America, Australia, Industan and Indochina. On the one hand, Savannah borders with a dry zone of deserts, and on the other - with a wet area of equatorial forests.
Its distinctive feature is alternating Arid winter season and wet summer When precipitation drops to 1000 mm. Such contrast is due to the alternate change of two air flows - dry tropical and wet equatorial. The temperature fluctuate is slightly, from +16 to +30 degrees. In particularly hot areas, the temperature can reach +35 or even +40.
In the zone, Savannan grows a large number of herbs, cereals, semi-stares and only occasionally islands of trees. In Africa, you can meet rarely scattered baobabs, the eucalyptus and a bottle tree are characterized for Australia, and palm trees are found in Brazilian savanna.
Animal world on different continents has its own characteristic features. For African savannahs, these are lions, cheetahs, leopards, zebras, giraffes, elephants, rhinos, buffaloes, antophes GNU, from birds - African ostriches, birds-secretaries and marabou. In Australian a lot of silent animals (Koal and Kangaroo), which are no longer found anywhere, as well as climbing, crocodiles, turtles, ostriches of Ema, parrots. The fauna of South American savannah differs from the rest of the armadiors, ants, Ostrich-Nanda.
Desert and semi-deserts
This natural zone is considered to be The most extensive - It is located about ⅕ parts of the sushi. Most of all deserts and semi-deserts are in the north of Africa, in the territory of the Arabian Peninsula, in the tropical part of South America and partly on the Australian lands. The continuous strip consisting of deserts and semi-deserts stretches from the northern shores of the Caspian Sea to the border between China and the DPRK.
The precipitate here is extremely scanty - per year to 50 mm. The temperature may vary from +20 to +50 degrees in summer, and at night in the winter months can be lowered to -50. The nature of the desert is extremely poorly by the presence of plants - mostly spiny and rare lichens. In the semi-desert zone, steppe plants appear - Kickl, cereal and perennial herbs. Among the representatives of the animal world, the deserts are camels, sacking, small rodents such as tubes and a variety of reptiles.
These forests occupy Sub-screen climatic belt . They are characteristic of the nature of Brazil, are common in Sri Lanka, Madagascar, stretched along the Eastern coast of Indochina, are located in the north of the Australian continent, in American and Asian tropics, as well as partly in African tropics (north and south of equatorial forests).
Winter here are so arid that the trees sometimes even drop the leaves to save moisture. But in summer, the real season of rains comes here when precipitation may fall to 2000 mm. The average summer temperature is 20-25 degrees of heat, it happens above.
From vegetation, palm, bamboo, ficus, nut, oak are characteristic of variable wet forests. Sometimes coniferous breeds - cedar and pine.
The animal world is very diverse, you can meet monkeys, elephants, leopards, tigers, lemurs, pandas, bears, deer, boars and other fauna representatives, including birds - Pheasanov, parrots, partridges.
Tighted evergreen forests
The natural zone of severe evergreen forests is located in the Mediterranean, the northern and southern parts of Africa, in Chile, in the west of North America, in Australian subtropics.
In winter, it is moderately cool and very humid here, from +8 to +16 degrees, but in summer, on the contrary, hot and dry, the temperature rises to +25 and higher. Soils of these forests are enough fertile . For a year, the amount of precipitation reaches 700 mm, but they fall mainly in winter.
For local flora (except Australia) are characteristic Thickets of low-spirited trees - evergreen oaks, pines, dwarf palm trees. The Australian continent is common eucalyptus reaching up to 100 meters of height.
In the eucalyptus forests there is a lot of coal. In general, due to the small size of the natural zone of the fauna of these forests, it is similar to the fauna of neighboring zones (savannes, tropical forests, forests of moderate latitudes, deserts). In the Mediterranean territory there are many Surkov, Suslikov, snakes, turtles, chameleons, gecko. In North Africa, fauna is represented mainly by wolves, jackals, hyenas, dickerages, monkeys, goats, hares, snakes.
Borders of natural zones
The map clearly demonstrates the boundaries of natural zones and their relationship with climatic belts.
Principles of formation of natural zones
The basis for the formation of natural zones is seven geographical (or climatic) belts located strictly in order from the poles to the equator or vice versa.
Each of them contains one or more natural zones:
- The Arctic and Antarctic belts are polar deserts.
- Subarctic belt includes tundra and forest tundra.
- There are several natural zones at a moderate belt: a taiga, a mixed forest, a wide forest, steppes and forest-steppes, deserts and semi-deserts.
- In the subtropical there are two zones: severe evergreen forests, as well as savanna and palpal.
- The deserts and semi-deserts stretched through the tropical belt.
- In the subequatorial - zone of variable-wet forests.
- Equatorial and rainforest are located in the equatorial belt.
For each natural zone, a set of specific climatic features :
- Number of precipitation;
- certain properties of aerial mass over it;
- Proximity to ocean, the presence of ocean flows on the coast.
Not only climatic factors affect the formation of natural zones (although they are determining), but also geophysical. The nature of the natural zones affects the nature of the relief. It can be judged by the boundaries of the zone and its location.
If you carefully look at the world map or globe, you can see that natural zones are placed according to strict patterns. First, they are located horizontally, that is change together with shifting lard . Secondly, their placement affairs and Geophysical conditions , namely, the inhomogeneous nature of the terrestrial shell. Thirdly, great importance is Humidity character - On the same breadth, the relationship between moisturizes and evaporation may be unequal for different parts of the globe.
It is on these two reasons (relief and moisturizes) natural zones are rarely drawn by a solid strip strictly parallel to the equator. Often the zones are present by fragments. Since the greatest humidity is characteristic of coasting seas and oceans, and the smallest - in the center of the mainland, then for natural zones, it is also characteristic of changing from the coast to the center.
Examples of the formation of natural zones depending on the relief clearly demonstrate Mountain arrays . Here the natural zones change in the direction of foot to the vertices, which at an altitude of more than 4000-5000 meters even in the hottest months are covered with glaciers. This type of formation of climatic belts and natural zones is called high-rise lower.
In the world ocean, the zones appear very slightly. With changing zones, the nature of the surface layer of water, composition of ocean flora and fauna changes.
The natural zone is part of the geographic shell of the Earth, which is distinguished by the features of the animal and vegetable world, relief, climate. You can select 9 large natural zones that are sometimes divided into smaller.
See also: Natural zones of land
Equatorial and tropical forests
Near the equator there are tropical and equatorial forests. A classic example is the Amazon Jungle. The temperature is high here, as well as humidity. The plant world is very diverse. Soil fertrust and allows you to grow several fruit yields per year.
Desert and semi-deserts
Also near the equator are deserts and semi-deserts. They are characterized by high temperatures, but low humidity. Both Flora and Fauna are developed here extremely weakly, the Earth almost does not have fertile properties. An example of this natural zone is sugar.
Parking and savanna
Savans represent something average between the desert and the jungle. It is hot here, the moisture is not enough, but still precipitation falls out. There are little trees (sometimes this zone is called a parel), but a lot of herbs and shrubs. Most of the savannah is located in Africa, South America, India.
Tighted evergreen forests
Shrubs and tight forests are most often found in the countries of the Mediterranean region (Italy, Spain, Greece), although they grow and, for example, in California. Most plants in such forests are coniferous. Summer here is arid and roast, precipitation falls out during soft winters in an amount of 500-1000 mm.
The steppes are located in cooler latitudes. The locality here is flat, the trees are small, the vegetation is presented by grass. Soil is distinguished by special fertility - it is in the steppes that are black soil. In the summer, the temperature may rise to 20-40 ° C, and in the winter it falls to - 20-0 ° C. The steppes occupy most of Ukraine, Kazakhstan, the south of Russia.
Mixed and broad forest
In even more northern latitudes there are mixed, as well as deciduous forests. Larmed trees are dominated here. Clearly allocated seasons. Winter is cold, and summer is warm. This natural zone occupies the territory of Poland, Belarus, Germany, the Baltic States, a significant part of Russia.
Taiga is north of deciduous forests. It employs most of Siberia, the Russian Far East, Canada. Evergreen trees (larch, pine) are dominated, significant areas are engaged in swamps. The climate is still considered moderate, but the summer here is slightly warm, and the winter is harsh (up to - 40 ° C). Among animals a lot of predators.
Another north is Tundra. It is here that the eternal Merzlota begins. Lands are inferticated, vegetation is represented by mkhami and lichens. Rare trees and shrubs are found in the transition zone - Forestore. The summer is almost absent (the temperature is not higher than 10 ° C), the winter is extremely cold. For the most part Tundra occupies the coastal territory washed by the Arctic Ocean. Snow is in May, and he appears in October.
Finally, the northern natural zone is the Arctic desert. It can be seen in Greenland, on the archipelago new land and northern earth. Here even the MAs are rarely found. The animal world is represented by shrune, white bears and other polar animals. In winter, the temperature drops to - 60 °, and in the summer it rises only to + 3 ° C. A separate natural zone is the Antarctic Desert, which occupies the territory of Antarctica.
List of sources used
• https://obrazovaka.ru/geografiya/kakie-byvayut-prirodnye-zony.html• https://pristor.ru/prirodnye-zony-i-ix-osnovnye-osobennosti/• https: //ru.wikipedia. ORG / WIKI / Natural_zone
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What are the natural zones
In order to find out what natural zones are, remember that they are formed on the basis of geographic belts: equatorial, subetervatorial, tropical, subtropical, moderate, subarctic and arctic. If you ask the question, how many of them exist, then in geography it is customary to appeal to nine categories. Consider natural zones and their features.
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Equatorial and tropical forests
Characterized by high temperature and large amounts of precipitation. Here is the highest humidity on Earth. The top layer of the soil is very fertile, which gives it possible to grow fruit and vegetable cultures all year round and harvest several times a year.
The largest square occupies a rainforest in the Amazon River Valley. Many places in this impassable age have not yet been studied by people. Equatorial forests are rich in different types of plant and animal world. Here you can meet the smallest bird - hummingbirds, bloodthirsty alligators and human-like monkeys.
Fig. 1. Equatorial forests
Equatorial deserts and semi-deserts
For these areas, a very dry climate with the scorching sun is characterized most of the year. The vegetable and animal world is very meager, living organisms have to adapt to the severe conditions of the desert. There are practically no minerals in the soils, and the moisture is so far that the roots of plants (cactus) have to go deep into hundreds of meters.
The largest desert - sugar in Africa.
Fig. 2. Desert
Savannah and edging
Already from the name it is obvious that this zone of rare trees. Vegetation here is mainly grassy, low shrubs and rare trees (baobabs, umbrella acacia, etc.) are characterized. In this area, two periods: wet and dry. Very little precipitation falls per year and most of the year is hot.
Tighted forests and shrubs
This zone is characteristic of the countries of the Mediterranean. There are a variety of plants, many trees, mostly coniferous. The characteristic animal world can now be found only in zoos. Urbanization and technical progress led to the fact that forests were almost disappeared in Europe, and with them and an ancient fragile world of nature. Soil here is red-brown.Top 4 Articles who read with this
Steppes and forest site
In this natural zone, the most fertile soils are formed - chernozem. Climate soft, warm winter and hot summer. In the forest-steppe rich animal and vegetable world. In the steppes live predominantly rodents, predators, large birds.
Wide and mixed forests
Most of Russia are just the natural zone of forests. Moderate climate, warm summer and cold winter allow you to survive here a large number of animals. Plant world is represented by hundreds of types of bushes and trees.
Taiga Zone is located in the Northern countries, such as Canada, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia. Winter here becomes colder, and the number of sunny days is less. The whole territory is covered by evergreen forests consisting of coniferous trees: spruce, pine, fir, cedar. Representatives of fauna are predominantly predators.
Tundra and Fierotundra
A climatic belt in which Tundra and Fierotundra is located - subarctic. These natural zones are located in two countries: in Russia and Canada. In Lestundra, low-spirited trees and shrubs are growing, in the tundra - only mosses and lichens. There are hares, sands, northern deer in animals. The soil peat, tundrovo-gley, the swamps prevail. Due to the fact that most of the year here is winter, the land is not warming up.
Fig. 3. Tundra. Greenland Island
This is the zone of permafrost. The Arctic deserts occupy the islands of the Arctic Ocean. Bright representative - about. Greenland. From vegetation, only rare mosses and lichens. Animals prefer to live in water: northern bears, seals, walruses.
Antarctica is also an antarctic desert zone. Here they live penguins and pieces.
What did we know?
The most important thing is that you need to remember: what natural zones and their brief description are. Focusing how the climate with latitude changes, it will be easier to remember the classification of natural zones.
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